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Friday, December 4, 2020 | History

2 edition of Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 ̊global grid found in the catalog.

Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 ̊global grid

Richard Coval Alexander

Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 ̊global grid

  • 325 Want to read
  • 28 Currently reading

Published by Rand in Santa Monica, Calif .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Ocean temperature -- Charts, diagrams, etc.,
  • Sea ice -- Arctic regions.,
  • Sea ice -- Antarctica.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliograhical references.

    Statement[by] R. C. Alexander and R. L. Mobley.
    GenreCharts, diagrams, etc.
    SeriesRand Corporation reports R-1310-ARPA
    ContributionsMobley, R. L., joint author., Rand Corporation.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationix, 30 p. ;
    Number of Pages30
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16452529M

    was , is If so, dividing by ( is ’s Loss over ) gives: / times = km3 Loss = “We all Die” (OK, I give it 15%: see reasons below) You see, there is not km3 to lose. Only A negative result means it melts off WAY EARLY = Polar overheat = Ocean currents start conveying Warmth. Animation of the average yearly change in global land ice mass during from all of the world's glaciers and ice caps (excluding Greenland and Antarctica). sea surface height and sea surface temperature. The ocean – a driving force for weather and climate TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter sea level anomaly in the Pacific from September


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Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 ̊global grid by Richard Coval Alexander Download PDF EPUB FB2

Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on 1 ̊global grid: a report prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency / R. Alexander and R. Mobley.

Format Book Published Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, Description ix. Get this from a library. Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 ̊global grid. [R C Alexander; R L Mobley; Rand Corporation.; United States.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.]. Monthly distributions of the main ice packs of the Arctic and Antarctic are digitized from Fleet Weather Facility ice charts and Navy atlases and then incorporated into the global arrays. Machine-analyzed maps show the 12 monthly distributions, and maps and tabulations of averages of these data for the months of February and August are shown on Author: Richard C.

Alexander, Robert L. Mobley. Monthly Sea Surface Temperature. This map displays monthly sea surface temperatures for the globe. Monthly sea surface temperatures are from the Reynolds and Smith OISST version 2 sea surface temperature dataset.

Shading indicates the monthly average sea surface temperature in °C for the month indicated. Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on 1 ̊global grid: a report prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Alexander, Richard Coval, GCA   Regularly Updated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Imagery: SST contour charts.

SST analyzed fields. High resolution CoastWatch imagery. SST monthly means. SST monthly mean Anomalies. coral bleaching events and animations. / seasonal DHWs. Other Links of Interest. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is an important factor for weather forecasts and climate outlooks.

Where sea surface temperatures are relatively high, heat energy and moisture enter the atmosphere. Downwind of these warm areas, chances for precipitation are enhanced. Conversely, lower sea surface temperatures mean less evaporation.

Alexander, R. and R. Mobley. Monthly average sea surface temperature and ice-pack limits on a 1° global grid. Report 4–ARPA. Rand. Sea surface temperatures have a large influence on climate and weather. For example, every 3 to 7 years a wide swath of the Pacific Ocean along the equator warms by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius.

This warming is a hallmark of the climate pattern El Niño, which changes rainfall patterns around the globe. The Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) is a combination of monthly globally complete fields of SST and sea ice concentration for present.

This page focuses on the SST data; see the separate page for discussion of HadISST sea ice. Alexander, R.C., Mobley, R.L.: Monthly average sea surface temperature and ice pack limits on a 1 degree global grid. Rand Corporation Report, Santa Monica, pp.

1–30 () Google Scholar. Sea surface temperature increased during the 20 th century and continues to rise. From throughtemperature rose at an average rate of °F per decade (see Figure 1). Sea surface temperature has been consistently higher during the past three decades than at any other time since reliable observations began in (see Figure 1).

This data is Average SST and Ice-Pack Limits, based on 's and pre's data, derived from DS and Navy data. The variables are sea surface temperature and ice data.

Coverage is global. It is a spatially gridded (5° × 5°) global surface temperature dataset, with monthly resolution from January to present. We combine a global sea surface (water) temperature (SST) dataset with a global land surface air temperature dataset into this merged dataset of both the Earth’s land and ocean surface temperatures.

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre ( in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface.

Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Sea surface temperature (SST) data sets are an essential resource for monitoring and understanding climate variability and climate change.

By surface area, SSTs are the dominant (~71%) input into merged global land-ocean surface temperature data products. Historically, SST measurments have been made from ships. The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif.

The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October through December in nine regions of. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together.

The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. I have searched the web for global mean annual sea surface temperature (for the last years, as well as for a 20th century average), but the only values I could find concerned the temperature.

Sea ice advances and retreats in concert with the seasons. Monthly sea ice climatology is created by averaging the sea ice for each month over a period of many years. This animation shows the monthly average sea ice climatology over the Arctic region derived from years through In response to the development of a new higher-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), a new monthly 1{degrees} global sea surface temperature climatology was constructed from two intermediate climatologies: the 2{degrees} SST climatology used a yr base period between roughly 40{degrees}S and 60{degrees}N based on in situ.

The average sea surface temperatures over a long period of time are called a sea surface temperature "climatology." An area's climatology acts a baseline for deciding whether and how much the climate is changing.

To make a climatology data set, you average measurements collected over a long period of time. However, as time progressed global warming (phenomenon where the average annual temperature of the Earth increases) is changing the ocean's average temperature. In places such as the tropical seas, surface temperatures have increased as much as degrees Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) between the s and the mids.

The global land surface temperatures for May and the March–May period were the warmest on record, at °C (°F) and °C (°F) above the 20 th century average, respectively. In the Northern Hemisphere, both the May average temperature for land areas, and the hemisphere as a whole (land and ocean surface combined.

The measurements are used by meteorologists for weather prediction, fishermen to identify fishing grounds and navigators to visualize currents. The image is generated on a daily basis using SST data from a variety of polar-orbiting and geostationary environmental satellites from NOAA and partners, including GOES, POES, Meteosat, and Metop-A.

Sea Surface Temperatures. Latest Sea Surface Temperature image. Other SST Resources. Latest Sea Surface Temperature image – no map version. Image resolution change. On June 5ththe SST images available on this page were updated to use higher resolution data. These images are derived using data from the National Center for Environmental.

Reynolds and Smith OISST Version 2 monthly sea surface temperature climatology (in °C) on a ° lat/lon grid Data Source NCEP (OISST Version 2) Analysis Month of maximum sea surface temperature in the monthly climatology.

Dataset. Access the dataset used to. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on sea-ice-concentration data from the SMMR and SSM/I instruments.

The original data were obtained from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The data set also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive monthly averages for the whole year series () and. Sea surface temperature refers to the temperature of the top millimeter of the ocean.

An anomaly is a departure from average conditions. These maps compare temperatures in a given month to the long-term average temperature of that month from through The figure shows the mean temperature of the sea ice and the surface of the sea based on satellite observations during the past 36 hours.

The surface temperature of the ice has a great influence on the exchange of heat between the surface and the atmosphere, and thereby also the rate of. average monthly sea surface temperatures of the western north atlantic ocean by frederick c. fuglister contr£but£on no.

from the woods hole oceanograph£c instz'ut£on cambridge and woods hole, massachusetts may, text plate 1. plate 2. plate 3. plate 4-plate 5. plate 6. plate 7. plate 8.

plate 9. plate plate Sea Surface Temperature is an input for weather forecasting, climate studies, modeling, fisheries ecology, oceanography, and as a reference field for other satellite algorithms. This instance of the Integrated Mapping tool features satellite-dervied Climate Data Records of Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Extent.

Summer sea surface temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are set by absorption of solar radiation into the surface layer. In the Barents and Chukchi seas, there is an additional contribution from advection of warm water from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (for a recent assessment of this in the Chukchi Sea, see Serreze et al., ).

The 'normal' or average limit of sea ice (orange line) is defined as 15% sea ice cover, according to the average of satellite observations (both years inclusive). Sea ice may therefore well be encountered outside and open water areas inside the limit shown in the diagrams above.

Figure 1. Average Global Sea Surface Temperature, – This graph shows how the average surface temperature of the world’s oceans has changed since This graph uses the to average as a baseline for depicting change. Choosing a different. Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor in hurricane dynamics.

SST is measured over large portions of the ocean by satellites. Sea surface temperatures are generally warmer at low latitudes and colder at high latitudes but SST will vary with the seasons and with surface ocean currents.

Timmermans 1, A. Proshutinsky 2. 1 Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA. Highlights. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in August off the west coast of Greenland (eastern Baffin Bay) and in the Kara Sea were up to +4°C warmer than the August mean in these regions.

• In Augustthe average sea surface temperature was °C (°F) warmer than the 20th century average August temperature, and was the warmest month on record from As water temperatures rise, the ocean's ability to do what decreases.

The average global sea surface temperature has increased about °F since and has been consistently higher during the past three decades than at any other time since reliable records began in This temperature increase impacts weather systems, sea levels, marine species migrations, and ocean circulation patterns.

The term El Niño (Spanish for 'the Christ Child') refers to a warming of the ocean surface (or above-average sea surface temperatures) in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The low-level surface winds, which normally blow from east to west along the equator (“easterly winds”), instead weaken or, in some cases, start blowing.

The failure of the global average to track the Nino trend may be related to the remaining heat from the El Nino that just ended.

The ocean heat released by an El Nino event appears to gradually propagate from the tropics to higher latitudes over about 18 months, and so continues to contribute to a higher global average temperature, even though the El Nino event itself is “officially over.Changes in global average land - ocean surface temperature over the past century (since ) -Overall, the global annual temperature has increased at an average rate of °C (°F) per decade since and at an average rate of °C (°F) per decade.

The year-to-date globally averaged sea surface temperature was °F above the 20th century average of °F. This was the second highest for January–May in the year record, behind the record year For a more complete summary of climate conditions and events, see our May Global Climate Report.